CPE :: Lesson 6



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Avoiding repetition




Using pronouns

Now check this example: Mario Wells worked in advertising after the war. He became a professional painter in the early 60s.

1)  Use they or them for people in the singular when you are talking in general about males and females:

If you ask an artist how they started painting, they'll frequently say their grandfather or grandmother taught them.

2) Use himself, herself, themselves, etc. when the object is the same as the subject:

Hi poured himself a glass of water. Compare with: He poured him a glass of water where him refers to a different person.

3) Use it, this, that, these or those to refer to the things last mentioned:

Artists now have a vast range of materials at their disposal. This means that they can be much more versatile than in the past.

4) That is often used when giving reasons:

The artist is my cousin and that's why I'm here tonight.

One, another, the ones, the other/s, both, neither, all, none

1)  Use one to refer to singular countable nouns from a group. Use the structure a/an ... one with an adjective:

There are several excellent exhibitions on in Buenos Aires at the moment. I strongly recommend the one at the National Gallery.

I've bought a lot of new shirts recently, but for gardening I prefer to wear an old one.

2)  Use another to refer to the second, third, etc. singular countable noun from a group:

One picture showed a girl combing her hair. Another was of the same girl dancing.

3)  Use ones to avoid repeating a plural noun:

I enjoy romantic films, especially sad ones.

4)  Use the other when referring to the second of two things/people already mentioned:

Marina has two houses. One is in Miami and the other is in New York.

5)  Use the others when referring to the rest of a number of things/people already mentioned:

Most of the actors went to a party. The others went home to bed.

6)  Use both and neither to refer to two things/people:

George Wellington has already written two novels in France. Both became bestsellers. Neither is autobiographical.

7)  Use all and none to refer to more than two things/people:

He has written twenty novels and I have read all of them.

Luisa invited all her friends to a party but none of them came.

Using auxiliary and modal verbs

1)  We can avoid repeating words by using an auxiliary verb:

A year ago I couldn't speak any Japanese, but now I can.

Not many people have read "The Murderer" and I am one of the few that have.

2)  Use a form of do to replace a verb in the present or past simple:

I really enjoy good comedy films, but then I think everyone does.

Not everyone likes science films, although I have to admit that I do.

Using so

1)  Use so to avoid repeating a sentence:

A: Do you think Real Madrid will win the championship again?
B: I guess so. ( = I guess they will win the championship again.)

2)  Use do so to avoid repeating a verb + the words which follow:

I told my students to hand in the writing task on Monday and nearly all of them did so. ( = handed in the writing task on Monday)

Omitting words

It is sometimes possible to use to instead of a phrase with an infinitive beginning with to and to omit the rest:

Marcela suggested going to the concert, but I didn't want to.

Do call me if you're able to. I'd like to be able to solve your problems but I just don't know how to.

On the next page you will be able to practise this grammar.


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